Glycoproteomic and Phenotypic Elucidation of B4GALNT2 Expression Variants in the SID Histo-Blood Group System

Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Apr 1;23(7):3936. doi: 10.3390/ijms23073936.


The Sda histo-blood group antigen (GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ-R) is implicated in various infections and constitutes a potential biomarker for colon cancer. Sd(a−) individuals (2−4% of Europeans) may produce anti-Sda, which can lead to incompatible blood transfusions, especially if donors with the high-expressing Sd(a++)/Cad phenotype are involved. We previously reported the association of B4GALNT2 mutations with Sd(a−), which established the SID blood-group system. The present study provides causal proof underpinning this correlation. Sd(a−) HEK293 cells were transfected with different B4GALNT2 constructs and evaluated by immunostaining and glycoproteomics. The predominant SIDnull candidate allele with rs7224888:T>C (p.Cys406Arg) abolished Sda synthesis, while this antigen was detectable as N- or O-glycans on glycoproteins following transfection of wildtype B4GALNT2. Surprisingly, two rare missense variants, rs148441237:A>G and rs61743617:C>T, found in a Sd(a−) compound heterozygote, gave results similar to wildtype. To elucidate on whether Sd(a++)/Cad also depends on B4GALNT2 alterations, this gene was sequenced in five individuals. No Cad-specific changes were identified, but a detailed erythroid Cad glycoprotein profile was obtained, especially for glycophorin-A (GLPA) O-glycosylation, equilibrative nucleoside transporter 1 (S29A1) O-glycosylation, and band 3 anion transport protein (B3AT) N-glycosylation. In conclusion, the p.Cys406Arg β4GalNAc-T2 variant causes Sda-deficiency in humans, while the enigmatic Cad phenotype remains unresolved, albeit further characterized.

Keywords: SID blood group system; carbohydrate biosynthesis; erythrocyte; flow cytometry; gene expression; glycobiology; glycopeptide; glycoprotein; glycosyltransferase; mass spectrometry (MS).

MeSH terms

  • Blood Group Antigens* / genetics
  • HEK293 Cells
  • Humans
  • N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases* / genetics
  • N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases* / metabolism
  • Phenotype


  • Blood Group Antigens
  • N-Acetylgalactosaminyltransferases
  • beta-1,4-N-acetyl-galactosaminyl transferase 2