Background: In January 2022, United States guidelines shifted to recommend isolation for 5 days from symptom onset, followed by 5 days of mask wearing. However, viral dynamics and variant and vaccination impact on culture conversion are largely unknown.
Methods: We conducted a longitudinal study on a university campus, collecting daily anterior nasal swabs for at least 10 days for RT-PCR and culture, with antigen rapid diagnostic testing (RDT) on a subset. We compared culture positivity beyond day 5, time to culture conversion, and cycle threshold trend when calculated from diagnostic test, from symptom onset, by SARS-CoV-2 variant, and by vaccination status. We evaluated sensitivity and specificity of RDT on days 4-6 compared to culture.
Results: Among 92 SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR positive participants, all completed the initial vaccine series, 17 (18.5%) were infected with Delta and 75 (81.5%) with Omicron. Seventeen percent of participants had positive cultures beyond day 5 from symptom onset with the latest on day 12. There was no difference in time to culture conversion by variant or vaccination status. For the 14 sub-study participants, sensitivity and specificity of RDT were 100% and 86% respectively.
Conclusions: The majority of our Delta- and Omicron-infected cohort culture-converted by day 6, with no further impact of booster vaccination on sterilization or cycle threshold decay. We found that rapid antigen testing may provide reassurance of lack of infectiousness, though masking for a full 10 days is necessary to prevent transmission from the 17% of individuals who remain culture positive after isolation.
Main point: Beyond day 5, 17% of our Delta and Omicron-infected cohort were culture positive. We saw no significant impact of booster vaccination on within-host Omicron viral dynamics. Additionally, we found that rapid antigen testing may provide reassurance of lack of infectiousness.