Photobiomodulation stimulates surrounding bone formation and increases stability of titanium alloy miniscrews in ovariectomized rats

Lasers Med Sci. 2022 Sep;37(7):2917-2924. doi: 10.1007/s10103-022-03560-w. Epub 2022 Apr 14.


The number of older individuals (> 60 years) treated in orthodontic dental practice is constantly growing, and osteoporosis is a common disease within this age range. Orthodontic treatment for this group tends to be challenging, often requiring the use of mini-implants. Mini-implants are important accessories in orthodontic treatment that provide solutions to complex cases. Despite the high level of success, these devices are prone to failure if insufficient bone stability is achieved. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of photobiomodulation on bone neoformation around mini-implants using fluorescence analysis in ovariectomized rats. A total of 12 female rats (Wistar) were ovariectomized and divided into three groups: two groups of low-level laser therapy irradiation in two different protocols, as follows: in the PBM1 group, applications were performed using 2 J, for 20 s each for 48 h, 6 irradiations in total, and in the PBM2 group, a single application of 4 J was performed for 40 s, and the third group represented the control group, and no laser therapy was applied. Each rat received two mini-implants placed immediately behind the upper incisors, and 0 g of force was applied using a NiTi spring. All rats received two bone markers, tetracycline (days 0-4) and alizarin (days 7-10), for 5 days each. Both markers were bound to calcium, allowing visualization of bone neoformation through fluorescence microscopy. After 12 days, euthanasia was performed; the results revealed that both irradiated groups showed significantly greater bone neoformation compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Mini-implant stability was measured in all animals using the Periotest device on day 0 and on the day of euthanasia. A significant increase in stability was observed in the group that received more laser application (p < 0.05). Photobiomodulation had a positive effect on bone neoformation around mini-implants in ovariectomized rats, with an increase in stability when more irradiation was performed.

Keywords: Adult orthodontic treatment; Laser; Laser therapy; Mini-implant; Orthodontics; Systemic disease; Tooth movement.

MeSH terms

  • Alloys
  • Animals
  • Dental Implants*
  • Female
  • Orthodontic Anchorage Procedures* / methods
  • Osteogenesis
  • Rats
  • Rats, Wistar
  • Titanium


  • Alloys
  • Dental Implants
  • Titanium