Background/objective: The objective of this study was to describe the molecular sensitization profile of mite allergy in an area with a high environmental exposure of house dust mites (HDM) and storage mites.
Methods: Skin prick tests were performed with standardized extracts (DIATER, Madrid, Spain). A specific commercial molecular panel (MADx) for Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (Dpt), Dermatophagoides farinae (Dfar), Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ldt), Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Tput), and Blomia tropicalis (Blot) was correlated with clinical parameters in Galician (northwestern of Spain) HDM allergic patients.
Results: Fifty patients (60% female) met the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All of the patient's present rhinitis (50), 28% (14) rhinitis and asthma, and 18% (9) atopic dermatitis (AD). Hundred patients had a positive prick test for Dpt, followed by Dfar (92%), Ldt and Tput (74%), and Blot (68%). More than 50% recognized specific IgE for Der p 1, Der p 2, reaching 86% in the case of Der p 23. No statistically significant differences in IgE levels were found between patients with/without asthma and those with mild or moderate-severe rhinitis. Der p 7 was higher among rhinitis patients (p value 0.05). AD relative risk (RR) was increased in patients sensitized to Der f 2, Der p 2, and Der p 23. Der p 10 decreases the risk to have AD (RR 0.80).
Conclusion: The evaluation of IgE results in a comprehensive panel of allergens allows differentiation of serological reactivity profiles with their clinical expression, to perform an optimal management. Improvements in component resolved diagnosis and more research on the clinical relevance of mite allergens are needed to achieve a genuine diagnosis leading to specific immunotherapy.
Keywords: Component resolved diagnosis; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; House dust mites; Lepidoglyphus destructor; Molecular diagnosis.
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