Non-coding RNAs: are they the protagonist or antagonist in the regulation of leukemia?

Am J Transl Res. 2022 Mar 15;14(3):1406-1432. eCollection 2022.

Abstract

The idea of functional non-coding RNAs is taking precedence over the previous notion which believed that they only comprise the auxiliary and junk material of the genome. Newer technologies and studies have proven their importance in regulating and affecting several cellular processes. One such area of research wherein their importance has started to take light is in cancer research, particularly leukemia. Myeloid leukemia is a blood malignancy birthed from mutations in hematopoiesis that disable myeloid progenitor cells from proper differentiation. This review will compile the most recent findings regarding the effects of these regulatory non-coding RNAs on the two types of myeloid leukemia. In particular, the effects of circular RNAs, micro RNAs and long non-coding RNAs, on the pathogenesis and proliferation of Acute and Chronic myeloid leukemia will be revealed in a molecular, cellular and prognostic light. The mechanisms of proliferation, gene-to-gene interactions and possible therapeutic effects will also be discussed. Finally, an understanding of the overall "goodness" and "badness" of these non-coding RNAs will be summarised. This review hopes to provide a platform for easy access to data regarding the current non-coding RNAs in myeloid leukemia, for faster and easier research. Finally, the review will summarize a few key players that have protagonistic and antagonistic functions, and those that regulate multiple pathways in leukemia simultaneously.

Keywords: AML; CML; MiRNAs; circRNAs; lncRNAs.

Publication types

  • Review