Autoimmune bullous diseases (AIBDs) are a heterogeneous group of diseases characterized by cutaneous and mucosal vesicles, blisters, and erosions. Several factors can trigger this disease, including vaccines; but this entity remains very rare. We hypothesized that vaccination against coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) could trigger an immunological response in genetically predisposed individuals. We report five cases of new-onset autoimmune bullous diseases triggered by the COVID-19 vaccine. Clinical and histopathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid (BP) in three patients and pemphigus in the other two. According to the French method of imputability, the pharmacovigilance investigation showed an I5B4 causality assessment score for the vaccines, interpreted as highly probable, for all the patients. The diagnosis of vaccine-induced autoimmune bullous dermatosis was highly suspected. One patient's condition improved by dermocorticoids alone, while the other four required oral corticosteroid therapy at 0.5 mg/kg/day, which led to a favorable outcome.
Keywords: autoimmune bullous dermatosis; bullous pemphigoid; covid-19 vaccine; immunology; imputability; pemhigus vulgaris; superficial pemphigus.
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