Impacts of globalization and energy consumption on environmental degradation: what is the way forward to achieving environmental sustainability targets in Nigeria?

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int. 2022 Aug;29(40):60426-60439. doi: 10.1007/s11356-022-20180-7. Epub 2022 Apr 14.


One of the major problems the world is currently facing is climate change. This is due to the use of fossil fuel combustion, which increases the presence of CO2 emissions and other greenhouse gases in the atmosphere in several countries of the world, which Nigeria is not exempted from. Against this background, this study examines the impacts of globalization, real income, urbanization, and energy consumption on environmental degradation; and proffer way forward to achieving environmental sustainability targets in Nigeria, using quarterly frequency time series data over a period 1971-2018. To achieve our study objectives, this study makes use of quantile-quantile (Q-Q) approach, developed by Sim and Zhou J Bank Financ 55:1-8, (2015). This approach groups together nonparametric estimation and quantile regression. Empirical results show that, in all quantiles, globalization, real income, urbanization, and energy consumption impact positively on environmental degradation. Thus, we are of the opinion that for the nation to achieve any meaningful environmental sustainability targets, (i) it must shift from economic activities that are dependent and driven by non-renewable energy sources; (ii) enact environmental laws and regulations that prevent indigenous and multinationals firms from using non-renewable energy sources in production activities; (iii) discourage rural-urban migration by enacting policies that would improve life in the rural areas, such as diverting investment of indigenous and multinational companies to be situated in the rural areas; and lastly, (iv) learn from jurisdictional experiences that have successfully replaces non-renewable energy sources with renewable ones for an overall economic growth and environmental sustainability targets for both the immediate and future generations.

Keywords: Economic growth; Energy consumption; Environmental degradation; Globalization; Nigeria; Quantile-on-quantile regression; Urbanization.

MeSH terms

  • Carbon Dioxide* / analysis
  • Economic Development*
  • Fossil Fuels
  • Internationality
  • Nigeria


  • Fossil Fuels
  • Carbon Dioxide