Sutureless Closure Versus Conventional Technique in the Primary Surgery of Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Connection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Pediatr Cardiol. 2022 Jun;43(5):943-951. doi: 10.1007/s00246-022-02904-1. Epub 2022 Apr 15.


Sutureless closure has been used for primary repair of total anomalous pulmonary venous connection (TAPVC) for over 20 years but its superiority over conventional technique is still uncertain. This systematic review was conducted to compare the effectiveness of sutureless closure and conventional surgery as the primary repair for TAPVC. Systematic search was performed in June 2021 on 12 databases. All studies comparing sutureless and conventional surgery for TAPVC were included. The primary endpoints were early mortality, overall mortality, postoperative pulmonary venous stenosis (PVS), and reoperation. Meta-analysis of two-arm studies was performed with several sensitivity and subgroup analyses. Six retrospective studies with 767 patients were included in meta-analyses. Sutureless closure significantly reduced the risk of early mortality, overall mortality, postoperative PVS, and reoperation by 53%, 45%, 77%, and 67% compared to conventional technique, respectively. No heterogeneity was found and presence of publication bias was non-significant. The results were consistent in all sensitivity analyses. Subgroup analyses revealed that sutureless closure was superior to conventional technique in patients with and without preoperative pulmonary venous obstruction, and neonates and non-neonates. Sutureless closure is better than conventional closure as the primary surgery for TAPVC patients. We advocate using sutureless closure for patients with TAPVC. Future large-scale observational studies or clinical trials are required to confirm our findings.

Keywords: Conventional closure; Mortality; Primary surgery; Sutureless closure; TAPVC.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Pulmonary Veins* / abnormalities
  • Pulmonary Veins* / surgery
  • Pulmonary Veno-Occlusive Disease* / surgery
  • Reoperation
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Scimitar Syndrome* / surgery
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Vascular Malformations* / surgery