Multiplex Detection of Antibiotic Residues in Milk: Application of MCR-ALS on Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence (EEMF) Data Sets

Anal Chem. 2022 Apr 26;94(16):6206-6215. doi: 10.1021/acs.analchem.1c05592. Epub 2022 Apr 15.


The presence of antibiotics and their metabolites in milk and dairy products is a serious concern because of their harmful effects on human health. In the current study, a novel synergistic bimetallic nanocluster with gold and silver as an emission fluorescence probe was investigated for the simultaneous determination of tetracycline (TC), ampicillin (AMP), and sulfacetamide (SAC) antibiotics in the milk samples using excitation-emission matrix fluorescence (EEMF) spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution-alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) method was implemented to analyze augmented EEMF data sets to quantify the multicomponent systems in the presence of interferences with considerable spectral overlap. A pseudo-univariate calibration curve of the resolved emission spectra intensity against the concentration of the mentioned antibiotics was linear in the range of 5-5000 ng mL-1 for AMP and 50-5000 ng mL-1 for TC and SAC. The calculated values of the limit of detection ranged between 1.4 and 14.6 ng mL-1 with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of less than 4.9%. The obtained results show that the EEMF/MCR-ALS methodology using an emission fluorescence probe is a powerful tool for the simultaneous quantification of TC, AMP, and SAC in complex matrices with highly overlapped spectra.

MeSH terms

  • Ampicillin / analysis
  • Ampicillin / chemistry
  • Animals
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents*
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Humans
  • Least-Squares Analysis
  • Milk*
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Tetracycline / analysis
  • Tetracycline / chemistry


  • Ampicillin
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Fluorescent Dyes
  • Tetracycline