Pharmacotherapy for Erectile Dysfunction in 2021 and Beyond

Urol Clin North Am. 2022 May;49(2):209-217. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2021.12.002.


Erectile dysfunction (ED), defined as the inability to develop or maintain an erection firm enough for satisfactory sexual intercourse, is a common urologic condition that increases in prevalence with age but can affect men of any age. As the discovery of the role of the nitric oxide pathway in inducing and maintaining erections, there have been numerous pharmacologic advancements for the treatment of ED. Here, we will review the mainstays of the pharmacologic treatment of ED: OTC/herbal supplements, phosphodiesterase type V inhibitors (PDE5I), intraurethral suppositories (MUSE), and intracorporal injections (ICI).

Keywords: Erectile dysfunction; Erectile function; Penis; Pharmacotherapy; Sexual dysfunction; Sexuality.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5 / therapeutic use
  • Erectile Dysfunction* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Penile Erection


  • Cyclic Nucleotide Phosphodiesterases, Type 5