Long-term ophthalmological outcomes in patients with anterior plagiocephaly managed with a fronto-orbital advancement procedure

J Fr Ophtalmol. 2022 May;45(5):537-542. doi: 10.1016/j.jfo.2021.04.012. Epub 2022 Apr 14.


Background: Anterior plagiocephaly results from early fusion of a unilateral coronal cranial suture, which affects 1/10,000 infants at birth and can be associated with ophthalmological complications. The study aimed to evaluate the frequency of oculomotor disorders and refractive errors in children with non-syndromic anterior plagiocephaly.

Methods: Patients with anterior plagiocephaly undergoing surgery using a fronto-orbital advancement technique were included in this retrospective study between 2011 and 2017. The following data were collected: cycloplegic refraction in diopters (D), best-corrected visual acuity, manifest strabismus in primary position, ocular motility, head tilt in primary position, slit-lamp and fundus examination. The refractive errors were determined by autorefraction after cycloplegia with cyclopentolate.

Results: Among the sixteen patients included, hyperopia >2.5D was found in 10 patients, astigmatism >1D in 10 patients and anisometropia >1D in 7 patients. Astigmatism was contralateral to the synostosis in 7 cases. In total, significant refractive errors were found in 92.9%. Amblyopia was found in 33.3% patients. Strabismus was found in 11 patients, most frequently combined horizontal and vertical, of which 4 required strabismus surgery. The most frequent vertical deviation was ipsilateral hypertropia in 54.5%. We found superior oblique muscle limitation in 3 patients. Optic disc pallor was found in 2 patients.

Conclusion: In the years following fronto-orbital advancement for non-syndromic anterior plagiocephaly, refractive errors and oculomotor disorders are frequently encountered, mainly contralateral astigmatism and strabismus with both horizontal deviation and ispilateral hypertropia.

Keywords: Amblyopia; Amblyopie; Anterior plagiocephaly; Avancement fronto-orbitaire; Chirurgie oculomotrice; Erreurs réfractives; Fronto-orbital advancement; Neuropathie optique; Oculomotor disorder; Optic neuropathy; Plagiocéphalie antérieure; Refractive errors; Strabismus surgery; Troubles oculomoteurs.

MeSH terms

  • Astigmatism* / complications
  • Child
  • Craniosynostoses* / complications
  • Craniosynostoses* / epidemiology
  • Craniosynostoses* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Plagiocephaly* / epidemiology
  • Plagiocephaly* / etiology
  • Plagiocephaly* / surgery
  • Refractive Errors* / complications
  • Refractive Errors* / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Strabismus* / epidemiology
  • Strabismus* / etiology
  • Strabismus* / surgery