Despite a decline in incidence and mortality during the last decades, stomach cancer is one of the main health challenges worldwide. According to the GLOBOCAN 2020 estimates, stomach cancer caused approximately 800000 deaths (accounting for 7.7% of all cancer deaths), and ranks as the fourth leading cause of cancer deaths in both genders combined. About 1.1 million new cases of stomach cancer were diagnosed in 2020 (accounting for 5.6% of all cancer cases). About 75% of all new cases and all deaths from stomach cancer are reported in Asia. Stomach cancer is one of the most lethal malignant tumors, with a five-year survival rate of around 20%. There are some well-established risk factors for stomach cancer: Helicobacter pylori infection, dietary factors, tobacco, obesity, and radiation. To date, the most important way of preventing stomach cancer is reduced exposure to risk factors, as well as screening and early detection. Further research on risk factors can help identify various opportunities for more effective prevention. Screening programs for stomach cancer have been implemented in a few countries, either as a national or opportunistic screening of high-risk individuals only. Generally, due to its high aggressiveness and heterogeneity, stomach cancer still remains a severe global health problem.
Keywords: Epidemiology; Incidence; Mortality; Predictive factors; Prevention; Stomach cancer; Survival.
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