3D-Structured Illumination Microscopy of Centrosomes in Human Cell Lines

Bio Protoc. 2022 Mar 20;12(6):e4360. doi: 10.21769/BioProtoc.4360.


The centrosome is the main microtubule-organizing center of animal cells, and is composed of two barrel-shaped microtubule-based centrioles embedded in protein dense pericentriolar material. Compositional and architectural re-organization of the centrosome drives its duplication, and enables its microtubule-organizing activity and capability to form the primary cilium, which extends from the mature (mother) centriole, as the cell exits the cell cycle. Centrosomes and primary cilia are essential to human health, signified by the causal role of centrosome- and cilia-aberrations in numerous congenic disorders, as well as in the etiology and progression of cancer. The list of disease-associated centrosomal proteins and their proximitomes is steadily expanding, emphasizing the need for high resolution mapping of such proteins to specific substructures of the organelle. Here, we provide a detailed 3D-structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) protocol for comparative localization analysis of fluorescently labeled proteins at the centrosome in fixed human cell lines, at approximately 120 nm lateral and 300 nm axial resolution. The procedure was optimized to work with primary antibodies previously known to depend on more disruptive fixation reagents, yet largely preserves centriole and centrosome architecture, as shown by transposing acquired images of landmark proteins on previously published transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images of centrosomes. Even more advantageously, it is compatible with fluorescent protein tags. Finally, we introduce an internal reference to ensure correct 3D channel alignment. This protocol hence enables flexible, swift, and information-rich localization and interdependence analyses of centrosomal proteins, as well as their disorder-associated mutations.

Keywords: 3D-SIM; Centriole; Centrosome; Cilia; Fluorescence microscopy; Super-resolution microscopy.