Leiomyosarcoma in the extremities and trunk wall: systematic review and meta-analysis of the oncological outcomes

World J Surg Oncol. 2022 Apr 18;20(1):124. doi: 10.1186/s12957-022-02584-4.


Background: Leiomyosarcomas are aggressive malignancies which can occur on the trunk and extremities whose pathogenesis is poorly understood. We aim to quantify the prognostic impact of various clinical and pathological markers on survival and recurrence of leiomyosarcomas.

Methods: We conducted a systematic review as per PRISMA protocol. Survival, local recurrence, and metastasis were the outcome measures. Data were extracted from the studies for the outcome variables; the resultant odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used for the synthesis of a forest plot.

Results: Our search revealed thirteen studies comprising 1380 patients. Seven of these 13 publications were since 2012. Our analysis showed that tumor size larger than 5 cm adversely affected the outcome with an OR 3.39 (2.26-5.10, p < 0.01). Other factors which reduced the overall survival were positive margins of excision OR 2.12 (1.36-3.32, p < 0.01). A reduced risk of metastasis has strongly associated the use of radiotherapy with OR 10.84 (4.41-26.61, p < 0.01). Only a few studies analyzed the impact of factors on local recurrence.

Conclusions: Size larger than 5 cm and positive margins of excision are associated with poor overall survival. In comparison, the use of adjuvant radiotherapy was associated with a lower metastatic rate. There is a need for methodically high-quality studies with more uniform study design and reporting to evaluate the impact of various risk factors on local recurrence and metastases.

Level of evidence: Level 1 Prognostic.

Keywords: Extremities; Leiomyosarcoma; Outcomes; Soft tissue; Trunk wall.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Extremities / pathology
  • Extremities / surgery
  • Humans
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / pathology
  • Leiomyosarcoma* / therapy
  • Margins of Excision
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
  • Prognosis
  • Proportional Hazards Models
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Soft Tissue Neoplasms* / surgery