Key population perceptions and opinions about long-acting antiretrovirals for prevention and treatment: a scoping review

Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2022 May 1;17(3):145-161. doi: 10.1097/COH.0000000000000734. Epub 2022 Apr 18.


Purpose of review: Key populations are disproportionately affected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Access, retention, and adherence are important barriers for the efficacy of preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and HIV treatment among these populations. Long-acting (LA) antiretrovirals hold the promise to solve some of these backdrops. The objective of the current review is to update the perceptions of key populations and PLWH about LA, based on their opinion, acceptability, and willingness to use it.

Recent findings: According to the review preferences for LA vary with the population studied. Regarding people living with HIV (PLWH), male having sex with men are interested in having different options, adolescents are interested in LA (strong preference for implants), yet also perceive substantial obstacles to using biomedical prevention; transgender women aimed to nonvisible small implants, with long-lasting effects or LA injections that can be applied in other areas than buttocks, and women who experienced history of medical injections might increase preference for LA (except for history of people who inject drugs [IDU]). Female sex workers and IDU both showed interest in LA-PrEP. Regarding antiretroviral therapy, LA increased treatment satisfaction and acceptance, mainly among those receiving injections every 2 months. LA helped overcome pill fatigue, stigma, and adherence issues.

Summary: Knowing preferences for biomedical interventions will contribute to better understanding and developing effective strategies for these populations.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Anti-HIV Agents* / therapeutic use
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents / therapeutic use
  • Female
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / prevention & control
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis*
  • Sex Workers*


  • Anti-HIV Agents
  • Anti-Retroviral Agents