Rationale: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is prevalent in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and is a cause of secondary hypertension. Objectives: To explore the long-term effects of OSA and continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment on blood pressure (BP) in patients with ACS. Methods: Post hoc analysis of the ISAACC study (Continuous Positive Airway Pressure in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome and Obstructive Sleep Apnea; NCT01335087) included 1,803 patients admitted for ACS. Patients with OSA (apnea-hypopnea index [AHI], ⩾15 events/h) were randomly assigned to receive either CPAP or usual care and were seen in follow-up for 1-5 years. Office BP was determined at each visit. Results: We included 596 patients without OSA, 978 patients in the usual care or poor CPAP adherence group, and 229 patients in the good CPAP adherence group. At baseline, 52% of the patients were diagnosed with hypertension. Median (25th to 75th percentile) age and body mass index were 59 (52.0 to 67.0) years and 28.2 (25.6 to 31.2) kg/m2, respectively. After a median (25th to 75th percentile) follow-up of 41.2 (18.3 to 59.6) months, BP changes were similar in the OSA and non-OSA groups. However, we observed an increase in BP in the third tertile of the AHI (AHI, >40 events/h), with a maximum difference in mean BP of +3.3 mm Hg at 30 months. Patients with OSA with good CPAP adherence (⩾4 h/night) reduced mean BP after 18 months compared with patients with usual care/poor CPAP adherence, with a maximum mean difference (95% confidence interval) of -4.7 (-6.7 to -2.7) mm Hg. In patients with severe OSA, we observed a maximum mean difference of -7.1 (-10.3 to -3.8) mm Hg. Conclusions: In patients with ACS, severe OSA is associated with a long-term increase in BP, which is reduced by good CPAP adherence. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01335087).
Keywords: acute coronary syndrome; blood pressure; cardiovascular diseases; hypertension; obstructive sleep apnea.