Pattern of Male Hypogonadism and Outcome of Treatment in South Rajasthan

J Assoc Physicians India. 2022 Apr;70(4):11-12.


Male reproductive functions are governed by hypothalamic pituitary testicular axis. If any component of this axis malfunctions, then hypogonadism will develop which is characterized by ill-defined secondary sexual features and low serum testosterone. The common patterns seen are primary and secondary testicular failure in the young; and late onset hypogonadism in the elderly. All such cases can be virilized and managed by androgen supplementation. Spermatogenesis can be induced by use of appropriate gonadotropins in selected cases. The aim of the study was to find out the pattern, management and outcome of male hypogonadism.

Material: It was a prospective questionnaire based observational study, carried out on infertile hypogonadic males, attending medicine outdoor at medical college hospital from January 2015 to December 2020. There were 50 males with hypogonadic features, cases of late onset of hypogonadism were excluded. Sexual maturity rating, semen analysis, serum testosterone and FSH level were estimated in all patients at baseline and at 6 months duration of treatment. Testicular biopsy, Karyotyping and MRI brain were performed in selected cases. Azoospermic patients having hypogonadotropic hypogonadism were treated with long-acting testosterones and gonadotropins.

Observation: The study subjects were infertile azoospermic males. On the basis of serum FSH and testosterone levels, they were classified into two groups. Group A (n=42) cases were hypergonadotropic hypogonadism or primary testicular failure; of these 32 were Klinefelter syndrome (XXY), 7 chronic orchitis and 3 empty scrotal syndrome including one case of anorchia. These patients also developed other systemic illnesses in addition to hypogonadism. Group B (n=8) hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or secondary testicular failure; of these 2 were Kallman syndrome and the rest were idiopathic. After testosterone replacement all patients were virilized and there was marked improvement in libido and androgenization.

Conclusion: The study brings out that primary testicular failure is more common than secondary testicular failure. Both pattern of hypogonadism should receive lifelong androgen replacement therapy; otherwise, they will be a basket of multiple systemic disorders. Presently testosterone undecanoate once in every three months is the agent of choice.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Azoospermia*
  • Female
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone
  • Gonadal Dysgenesis, 46,XY
  • Gonadotropins
  • Humans
  • Hypogonadism* / drug therapy
  • India / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Prospective Studies
  • Testis / abnormalities
  • Testosterone / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Gonadotropins
  • Testosterone
  • Follicle Stimulating Hormone

Supplementary concepts

  • Anorchia