Development and delivery of a brief family behavioral intervention to support continuous glucose monitor use in young children with type 1 diabetes

Pediatr Diabetes. 2022 Sep;23(6):792-798. doi: 10.1111/pedi.13349. Epub 2022 May 19.


Background: Despite potential glycemic benefits of continuous glucose monitor (CGM) use in young children with type 1 diabetes, psychosocial and behavioral challenges may interfere with sustained use. We developed a 5-session family behavioral intervention (FBI) to support CGM use.

Objective: We report on the multi-step development of the FBI, training interventionists, implementation in a 14-site clinical trial, and participant satisfaction.

Methods: A multidisciplinary team created the FBI based on mixed-methods (i.e., survey data, qualitative research) preliminary work with parents of young children. Investigators trained non-physician staff to deliver the 5 sessions per an intervention manual. Trial participants received the FBI either during the first (FBI group, n = 50) or second 6-months (Crossover group, n = 44) of the 1-year trial. Investigators listened to session recordings to rate intervention fidelity, and participants rated satisfaction with the FBI.

Results: The complete 5-session FBI was delivered to 89% of participants, in-person (73%) or by telephone (23%). Sessions lasted 23 min on average, and fidelity was high across sessions. Over 80% of participants rated very high satisfaction with all aspects of the FBI and offered few recommendations for improvement.

Conclusions: Having been developed based on experiences and input of families of young children with type 1 diabetes, the FBI represented a novel behavioral approach to enhance sustained CGM use during a challenging developmental period. Evidence of strong feasibility and acceptability supports its potential for implementation in research and clinical care. As diabetes technologies evolve, the FBI may continue to be refined to address parents' most relevant concerns.

Keywords: behavioral research; parents; psychosocial intervention; type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Behavior Therapy
  • Blood Glucose
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / psychology
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Parents / psychology
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Blood Glucose