Advances in the development of new biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease

Transl Neurodegener. 2022 Apr 21;11(1):25. doi: 10.1186/s40035-022-00296-z.

Abstract

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex, heterogeneous, progressive disease and is the most common type of neurodegenerative dementia. The prevalence of AD is expected to increase as the population ages, placing an additional burden on national healthcare systems. There is a large need for new diagnostic tests that can detect AD at an early stage with high specificity at relatively low cost. The development of modern analytical diagnostic tools has made it possible to determine several biomarkers of AD with high specificity, including pathogenic proteins, markers of synaptic dysfunction, and markers of inflammation in the blood. There is a considerable potential in using microRNA (miRNA) as markers of AD, and diagnostic studies based on miRNA panels suggest that AD could potentially be determined with high accuracy for individual patients. Studies of the retina with improved methods of visualization of the fundus are also showing promising results for the potential diagnosis of the disease. This review focuses on the recent developments of blood, plasma, and ocular biomarkers for the diagnosis of AD.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease; Amyloid beta peptides; Biomarkers; Blood; Cytokines; Inflammation; MicroRNA; Ocular biomarkers.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alzheimer Disease* / diagnosis
  • Alzheimer Disease* / epidemiology
  • Alzheimer Disease* / genetics
  • Amyloid beta-Peptides / metabolism
  • Biomarkers
  • Humans
  • MicroRNAs*
  • Retina / metabolism
  • Retina / pathology

Substances

  • Amyloid beta-Peptides
  • Biomarkers
  • MicroRNAs