Is periodontal inflamed surface area associated with serum and salivary levels of IL-1β, visfatin, and omentin-1 in overweight/obese patients?

Clin Oral Investig. 2022 Aug;26(8):5351-5358. doi: 10.1007/s00784-022-04502-0. Epub 2022 Apr 22.


Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of salivary and serum interleukin (IL)-1β, visfatin, and omentin-1 in the relationship between periodontal disease and overweight/obesity as well as to reveal the possible role of periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) in this association.

Materials and methods: Ninety-six individuals (69 females, 27 males) were divided into 4 groups as systemically healthy (H) and non-periodontitis (HnP, n = 23), systemically healthy and periodontitis (HP, n = 24), overweight/obese (O) and non-periodontitis (OnP, n = 25), and overweight/obese and periodontitis (OP, n = 24). Periodontal parameters were measured, and PISA was calculated. IL-1β, visfatin, and omentin-1 levels in saliva and serum samples were analysed.

Results: Periodontal parameters deteriorated, salivary and serum IL-1β and visfatin levels were increased, and omentin-1 levels were decreased in OnP and OP groups, compared to HnP and HP groups. Salivary and serum IL-1β and visfatin levels were increased and omentin-1 levels were decreased in periodontitis groups, compared to HnP and OnP groups. PISA was negatively correlated with salivary omentin-1 and positively correlated with salivary and serum visfatin in H and O groups, whereas a positive relationship was found between PISA and salivary and serum IL-1β in H group.

Conclusions: PISA may be negatively associated with salivary omentin-1, while positively correlated with salivary and serum visfatin in overweight/obese patients.

Clinical relevance: Co-evaluation of PISA and adipokines seems to be an innovative approach to evaluate the association between periodontitis and overweight/obesity.

Keywords: Adipokines; Obesity; Overweight; Periodontal diseases.

MeSH terms

  • Cytokines
  • Female
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Lectins
  • Male
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase / analysis
  • Obesity
  • Overweight
  • Periodontal Diseases*
  • Periodontitis*


  • Cytokines
  • GPI-Linked Proteins
  • IL1B protein, human
  • ITLN1 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Lectins
  • Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase
  • nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase, human