Purpose: Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is one of the most severe forms of inborn errors of immunity characterized by absence or loss of function in T cells. The long-term outcomes of all forms of SCID have been evaluated in a limited number of studies. We aimed to evaluate the pre- and post-transplant manifestations of SCID patients and determine the factors affecting the survival of patients.
Methods: We included 54 SCID patients (classical SCID, Omenn syndrome, atypical SCID (AS)) in this study. We evaluated the clinical presentation, infections, and outcome of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Lymphocyte subsets and T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire were analyzed by flow cytometry.
Results: The median age at diagnosis was 5 (range: 3-24) months and follow-up time was 25 (range: 5-61) months. Symptom onset and diagnostic ages were significantly higher in AS compared to others (p = 0.001; p < 0.001). The most common SCID phenotype was T-B-NK + , and mutations in recombination-activating genes (RAG1/2) were the prominent genetic defect among patients. The overall survival (OS) rate was 83.3% after HSCT, higher than in non-transplanted patients (p = 0.001). Peripheral blood stem cell sources and genotypes other than RAG had a significant favorable impact on CD4+ T cells immune reconstitution after transplantation (p = 0.044, p = 0.035; respectively). Gender matching transplantations from human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-identical and non-identical donors and using peripheral blood stem cell source yielded higher B-cell reconstitution (p = 0.002, p = 0.028; respectively). Furthermore, receiving a conditioning regimen provided better B-cell reconstitution and chimerism (p = 0.003, p = 0.001). Post-transplant TCR diversity was sufficient in the patients and showed an equal distribution pattern as healthy controls. The OS rate was lower in patients who underwent transplant with active infection or received stem cells from mismatched donors (p = 0.030, p = 0.015; respectively).
Conclusion: This study identifies diagnostic and therapeutic approaches predictive of favorable outcomes for patients with SCID.
Keywords: Bone marrow transplantation; Immune reconstitution; Prognosis; Severe combined immunodeficiency; T-cell receptor repertoire.
© 2022. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.