Review and consensus recommendations on clinical APT-weighted imaging approaches at 3T: Application to brain tumors

Magn Reson Med. 2022 Aug;88(2):546-574. doi: 10.1002/mrm.29241. Epub 2022 Apr 22.


Amide proton transfer-weighted (APTw) MR imaging shows promise as a biomarker of brain tumor status. Currently used APTw MRI pulse sequences and protocols vary substantially among different institutes, and there are no agreed-on standards in the imaging community. Therefore, the results acquired from different research centers are difficult to compare, which hampers uniform clinical application and interpretation. This paper reviews current clinical APTw imaging approaches and provides a rationale for optimized APTw brain tumor imaging at 3 T, including specific recommendations for pulse sequences, acquisition protocols, and data processing methods. We expect that these consensus recommendations will become the first broadly accepted guidelines for APTw imaging of brain tumors on 3 T MRI systems from different vendors. This will allow more medical centers to use the same or comparable APTw MRI techniques for the detection, characterization, and monitoring of brain tumors, enabling multi-center trials in larger patient cohorts and, ultimately, routine clinical use.

Keywords: APT-weighted imaging; APTw standardization; CEST imaging; brain tumor.

Publication types

  • Review
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Amides
  • Brain Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Brain Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Consensus
  • Dimaprit / analogs & derivatives
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Protons


  • Amides
  • Protons
  • APT
  • Dimaprit