Functional connectivities (FC) of brain network manifest remarkable geometric patterns, which is the gateway to understanding brain dynamics. In this work, we present a novel geometric-attention neural network to characterize the time-evolving brain state change from the functional neuroimages by tracking the trajectory of functional dynamics on high-dimension Riemannian manifold of symmetric positive definite (SPD) matrices. Specifically, we put the spotlight on learning the common state-specific manifold signatures that represent the underlying cognition. In this context, the driving force of our neural network is tied up with the learning of the evolution functionals on the Riemannian manifold of SPD matrix that underlies the known evolving brain states. To do so, we train a convolution neural network (CNN) on the Riemannian manifold of SPD matrices to seek for the putative low-dimension feature representations, followed by an end-to-end recurrent neural network (RNN) to yield the time-varying mapping function of SPD matrices which fits the evolutionary trajectories of the underlying states. Furthermore, we devise a geometric attention mechanism in CNN, allowing us to discover the latent geometric patterns in SPD matrices that are associated with the underlying states. Notably, our work has the potential to understand how brain function emerges behavior by investigating the geometrical patterns from functional brain networks, which is essentially a correlation matrix of neuronal activity signals. Our proposed manifold-based neural network achieves promising results in predicting brain state changes on both simulated data and task functional neuroimaging data from Human Connectome Project, which implies great applicability in neuroscience studies.