Morphological and Molecular Description of Sarcocystis  myodes n. sp. from the Bank Vole ( Clethrionomys glareolus) in Lithuania

Biology (Basel). 2022 Mar 26;11(4):512. doi: 10.3390/biology11040512.

Abstract

Numerous rodent species have been broadly examined for Sarcocystis parasites. Nevertheless, recent investigations on Sarcocystis spp. in voles are lacking. As many as 45 bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus) captured in several locations in Lithuania were examined in the present study. Based on morphological, genetic, and phylogenetic results, sarcocysts detected in one bank vole were described as Sarcocystis myodes n. sp. Using light microscopy analysis, the observed sarcocysts were ribbon-shaped, 6000-3000 × 70-220 µm in size. Sarcocysts were characterized by a relatively thin (about 1 μm) and apparently smooth cyst wall. The lancet-shaped bradyzoites were 9.6-12.0 × 3.1-4.6 μm in size. By transmission electron microscopy, the sarcocyst wall was up to 1 μm thick, parasitophorous vacuolar membrane had small knob-like blebs. Based on 18S rDNA, 28S rDNA, cox1, rpoB, and ITS1 loci, S. myodes showed highest similarity with S. ratti from the black rat (Rattus rattus). According to phylogenetic placement, S. myodes was most closely related to Sarcocystis spp. that employ predatory mammals as their definitive hosts. Morphologically, sarcocysts of S. myodes have similar features to those of S. cernae, S. dirumpens, and S. montanaensis described in voles, however, they use birds of prey or snakes as their definitive hosts.

Keywords: Sarcocystis myodes; bank vole; microscopy; molecular characterization; phylogeny; species description.