Application of Two-Dimensional Fluorescence Spectroscopy for the On-Line Monitoring of Teff-Based Substrate Fermentation Inoculated with Certain Probiotic Bacteria

Foods. 2022 Apr 18;11(8):1171. doi: 10.3390/foods11081171.


There is increasing demand for cereal-based probiotic fermented beverages as an alternative to dairy-based products due to their limitations. However, analyzing and monitoring the fermentation process is usually time consuming, costly, and labor intensive. This research therefore aims to apply two-dimensional (2D)-fluorescence spectroscopy coupled with partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and artificial neural networks (ANN) for the on-line quantitative analysis of cell growth and concentrations of lactic acid and glucose during the fermentation of a teff-based substrate. This substrate was inoculated with mixed strains of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum A6 (LPA6) and Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG (LCGG). The fermentation was performed under two different conditions: condition 1 (7 g/100 mL substrate inoculated with 6 log cfu/mL) and condition 2 (4 g/100 mL substrate inoculated with 6 log cfu/mL). For the prediction of LPA6 and LCGG cell growth, the relative root mean square error of prediction (pRMSEP) was measured between 2.5 and 4.5%. The highest pRMSEP (4.5%) was observed for the prediction of LPA6 cell growth under condition 2 using ANN, but the lowest pRMSEP (2.5%) was observed for the prediction of LCGG cell growth under condition 1 with ANN. A slightly more accurate prediction was found with ANN under condition 1. However, under condition 2, a superior prediction was observed with PLSR as compared to ANN. Moreover, for the prediction of lactic acid concentration, the observed values of pRMSEP were 7.6 and 7.7% using PLSR and ANN, respectively. The highest error rates of 13 and 14% were observed for the prediction of glucose concentration using PLSR and ANN, respectively. Most of the predicted values had a coefficient of determination (R2) of more than 0.85. In conclusion, a 2D-fluorescence spectroscopy combined with PLSR and ANN can be used to accurately monitor LPA6 and LCGG cell counts and lactic acid concentration in the fermentation process of a teff-based substrate. The prediction of glucose concentration, however, showed a rather high error rate.

Keywords: 2D-fluorescence spectroscopy; artificial neural network; functional beverage; partial least-squares regression; probiotics; teff-based substrate.