The distinguishing of uterine leiomyosarcomas (ULMS) and uterine leiomyomas (ULM) before the operation and histopathological evaluation of tissue is one of the current challenges for clinicians and researchers. Recently, a few new and innovative methods have been developed. However, researchers are trying to create different scales analyzing available parameters and to combine them with imaging methods with the aim of ULMs and ULM preoperative differentiation ULMs and ULM. Moreover, it has been observed that the technology, meaning machine learning models and artificial intelligence (AI), is entering the world of medicine, including gynecology. Therefore, we can predict the diagnosis not only through symptoms, laboratory tests or imaging methods, but also, we can base it on AI. What is the best option to differentiate ULM and ULMS preoperatively? In our review, we focus on the possible methods to diagnose uterine lesions effectively, including clinical signs and symptoms, laboratory tests, imaging methods, molecular aspects, available scales, and AI. In addition, considering costs and availability, we list the most promising methods to be implemented and investigated on a larger scale.
Keywords: leiomyoma (LM); leiomyosarcoma (LMS); preoperative differentiation; uterine fibroids.