Vitamin D has been implicated in the pathogenesis of skeletal disorders and various autoimmune disorders. Vitamin D can be consumed from the diet or synthesized in the skin upon ultraviolet exposure and hydroxylation in the liver and kidneys. In its bioactive form, vitamin D exerts a potent immunomodulatory effect and is important for bone health. Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is a collection of inflammatory joint diseases in children that share the manifestation of inflamed synovium, which can result in growth arrest, articular deformity, bone density loss, and disability. To evaluate the potential effect of vitamin D on JIA disease manifestations and outcomes, we review the role of vitamin D in bone metabolism, discuss the mechanism of vitamin D in modulating the innate and adaptive immune systems, evaluate the clinical significance of vitamin D in patients with JIA, and summarize the supplementation studies.
Keywords: bone metabolism; immune regulation; juvenile idiopathic arthritis; supplementation; vitamin D.