Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA) is the main precannabinoid in industrial hemp. It represents a common constituent of hemp seed oil, but mainly abundant in the aerial parts of the plant (including their processing waste). Thus, the optimization of fast and low-cost purification strategies is mandatory, as well as a deep investigation on its nutraceutical and cosmeceutical properties. To this purpose, CBDA content in hemp seed oil is evaluated, and its recovery from wasted leaves is favorably achieved. The cytotoxicity screening towards HaCaT cells, by means of MTT, SRB and LDH release assays, suggested it was not able to decrease cell viability or perturb cell integrity up to 10 μM concentration. Thus, the ability of CBDA to differentially modulate the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines mediators has been evaluated, finding that CBDA decreased IFN-γ, CXCL8, CXCL10, CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5, mostly in a dose-dependent manner, with 10 μM tested concentration exerting the highest activity. These data, together with those from assessing antimicrobial activity against Gram(+) and Gram(-) bacteria and the antibiofilm formation, suggest that CBDA is able to counteract the inflammatory response, also preventing bacteria colonization.
Keywords: Cannabidiolic acid; antimicrobial activity; cytokines; cytotoxicity; industrial hemp; keratinocytes.