Artificial intelligence (AI) in developing modern solutions for biomedical problems such as the prediction of human gait for human rehabilitation is gaining ground. An attempt was made to use plantar pressure information through fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensors mounted on an in-sole, in tandem with a brain-computer interface (BCI) device to predict brain signals corresponding to sitting, standing and walking postures of a person. Posture classification was attained with an accuracy range between 87-93% from FBG and BCI signals using machine learning models such as K-nearest neighbor (KNN), logistic regression (LR), support vector machine (SVM), and naïve Bayes (NB). These models were used to identify electrodes responding to sitting, standing and walking activities of four users from a 16 channel BCI device. Six electrode positions based on the 10-20 system for electroencephalography (EEG) were identified as the most sensitive to plantar activities and found to be consistent with clinical investigations of the sensorimotor cortex during foot movement. A prediction of brain EEG corresponding to given FBG data with lowest mean square error (MSE) values (0.065-0.109) was made with the selection of a long-short term memory (LSTM) machine learning model when compared to the recurrent neural network (RNN) and gated recurrent unit (GRU) models.
Keywords: artificial intelligence; brain computer interface fiber Bragg grating; healthcare; plantar pressure.