New non-invasive electrical stimulation devices for treatment of snoring and obstructive sleep apnoea: a systematic review

Sleep Breath. 2023 Mar;27(1):103-108. doi: 10.1007/s11325-022-02615-0. Epub 2022 Apr 23.


Introduction: Recently, new non-invasive electrical stimulation devices have been developed with the aim to increase the tongue muscle tone for patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and snorers. The aim of this study was to provide a review of the first results found in the literature regarding the efficacy of non-invasive electric stimulation devices for the treatment of primary snoring and OSA.

Material and methods: An electronic search was performed on PubMed/MEDLINE, Google Scholar, and Ovid databases. The PRISMA statement was followed. Databases were searched from inception through September, 2021.

Results: Four studies met the criteria for inclusion in this review, for a total of 265 patients. Two devices were included in this review, Apone-Stim 400 Muscle Stimulator and eXciteOSA. All studies suggested that these new devices are effective in improving snoring by approximately 50% after device training, without major complications. However data regarding OSA improvement are conflicting.

Conclusions: Intraoral non-invasive electrical stimulation devices can be considered a valid option to current therapies for snoring. Further studies are needed to support these interesting new devices for treatment of OSA.

Keywords: Intraoral device; Non-invasive electrical stimulation; Obstructive sleep apnoea; Snoring.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Electric Stimulation
  • Humans
  • Sleep Apnea, Obstructive* / therapy
  • Snoring* / therapy
  • Tongue