Late, repetitive or chronic remote ischaemic conditioning (CRIC) is a potential cardioprotective strategy against adverse remodelling following ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). In the randomised Daily Remote Ischaemic Conditioning Following Acute Myocardial Infarction (DREAM) trial, CRIC following primary percutaneous coronary intervention (P-PCI) did not improve global left ventricular (LV) systolic function. A post-hoc analysis was performed to determine whether CRIC improved regional strain. All 73 patients completing the original trial were studied (38 receiving 4 weeks' daily CRIC, 35 controls receiving sham conditioning). Patients underwent cardiovascular magnetic resonance at baseline (5-7 days post-STEMI) and after 4 months, with assessment of LV systolic function, infarct size and strain (longitudinal/circumferential, in infarct-related and remote territories). At both timepoints, there were no significant between-group differences in global indices (LV ejection fraction, infarct size, longitudinal/circumferential strain). However, regional analysis revealed a significant improvement in longitudinal strain in the infarcted segments of the CRIC group (from - 16.2 ± 5.2 at baseline to - 18.7 ± 6.3 at follow up, p = 0.0006) but not in corresponding segments of the control group (from - 15.5 ± 4.0 to - 15.2 ± 4.7, p = 0.81; for change: - 2.5 ± 3.6 versus + 0.3 ± 5.6, respectively, p = 0.027). In remote territories, there was a lower increment in subendocardial circumferential strain in the CRIC group than in controls (- 1.2 ± 4.4 versus - 2.5 ± 4.0, p = 0.038). In summary, CRIC following P-PCI for STEMI is associated with improved longitudinal strain in infarct-related segments, and an attenuated increase in circumferential strain in remote segments. Further work is needed to establish whether these changes may translate into a reduced incidence of adverse remodelling and clinical events. Clinical Trial Registration: http://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT01664611 .
Keywords: Heart failure; Primary percutaneous coronary intervention; Remodelling; Remote ischaemic conditioning; ST elevation myocardial infarction; Strain.
© 2022. The Author(s).