2-Aminoacrylate stress damages diverse PLP-dependent enzymes in vivo

J Biol Chem. 2022 Jun;298(6):101970. doi: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101970. Epub 2022 Apr 20.


Pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) is an essential cofactor for a class of enzymes that catalyze diverse reactions in central metabolism. The catalytic mechanism of some PLP-dependent enzymes involves the generation of reactive enamine intermediates like 2-aminoacrylate (2AA). 2AA can covalently modify PLP in the active site of some PLP-dependent enzymes and subsequently inactivate the enzyme through the formation of a PLP-pyruvate adduct. In the absence of the enamine/imine deaminase RidA, Salmonella enterica experiences 2AA-mediated metabolic stress. Surprisingly, PLP-dependent enzymes that generate endogenous 2AA appear to be immune to its attack, while other PLP-dependent enzymes accumulate damage in the presence of 2AA stress; however, structural determinants of 2AA sensitivity are unclear. In this study, we refined a molecular method to query proteins from diverse systems for their sensitivity to 2AA in vivo. This method was then used to examine active site residues of Alr, a 2AA-sensitive PLP-dependent enzyme, that affect its sensitivity to 2AA in vivo. Unexpectedly, our data also showed that a low level of 2AA stress can persist even in the presence of a functional RidA. In summary, this study expands our understanding of 2AA metabolism and takes an initial step toward characterizing the structural determinants influencing enzyme susceptibility to damage by free 2AA.

Keywords: 2-aminoacrylate damage; metabolite stress; pyridoxal 5′-phosphate enzymes.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

MeSH terms

  • Acrylates / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate / metabolism
  • Salmonella enterica*


  • Acrylates
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Pyridoxal Phosphate