Risk Factors for Coronary Heart Disease Among Lebanese Women: A Case-Control Study

Vasc Health Risk Manag. 2022 Apr 16;18:297-311. doi: 10.2147/VHRM.S350108. eCollection 2022.


Purpose: Women are increasingly concerned by coronary heart disease (CHD), with peculiarities of their own, particularly concerning risk factors. The aim of the study was to assess the risk factors for CHD in Lebanese women over forty.

Patients and methods: A case-control study was carried out in 6 hospitals in Beirut and Mount-Lebanon, from December 2018 to December 2019 including 1500 patients (1200 controls and 300 cases). Women were stratified into pre- and post-menopausal groups. Personal and medical data were collected from hospital records and during an interview where validated questionnaires were used. Binary logistic regressions were performed to investigate potential predictors of CHD in the 2 groups.

Results: In post-menopausal women, dyslipidemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 3.018; 95% confidence interval, 2.102-4.332), hypertension (aOR: 2.449, [1.386-4.327]), a family history of CHD (aOR: 2.724, [1.949-3.808]), cigarette smoking (aOR: 2.317, [1.574-3.410]) and common non-rheumatic joint pain (aOR: 1.457, [1.053-2.016]) were strongly associated with CHD. Conversely, living in Mount Lebanon seemed protective, compared to Beirut (aOR: 0.589, [0.406-0.854]), as well as having a moderate monthly income (aOR: 0.450, [0.220-0.923]), adhering to a Mediterranean diet (aOR: 0.965, [0.936-0.994]), and practicing physical activity [PA] (aOR: 0.396, [0.206-0.759] and 0.725, [0.529-0.992], respectively for high and moderate vs low PA). In pre-menopausal women, dyslipidemia (aOR: 6.938, [1.835-26.224]), hypertension (aOR: 6.195, [1.318-29.119]), family histories of dyslipidemia (aOR: 6.143, [1.560-24.191]) and CHD (aOR: 4.739, [1.336-16.805]) reached statistical significance.

Conclusion: The identification of factors associated with CHD in women, some of which are frequent and trivialized in post-menopause, underlines the need to put in place specific and dedicated CHD prevention strategies in women.

Keywords: aging; coronary disease; post-menopausal women; pre-menopausal women; risk factors.

MeSH terms

  • Case-Control Studies
  • Coronary Disease* / diagnosis
  • Coronary Disease* / epidemiology
  • Dyslipidemias* / diagnosis
  • Dyslipidemias* / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / diagnosis
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Risk Factors

Grant support

This work was supported by financial grants from Medilab SAL, Beirut, Lebanon [grant number 001/20]. No funding bodies had any role in study design, data collection and analysis, interpretation of data, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.