Clinical characteristics and outcome of the first 200 patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease-2019 at a treatment center in Abuja, Nigeria: a retrospective study

Pan Afr Med J. 2022 Feb 10;41:118. doi: 10.11604/pamj.2022.41.118.26594. eCollection 2022.


Introduction: globally, the ravaging effect of the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), pandemic is evident on public health and the global economy. We aimed at describing the clinical characteristic and management outcome of COVID-19 patients in Abuja, Nigeria.

Methods: we conducted a retrospective study by reviewing the hospital charts of the first 200 COVID-19 patients admitted at the isolation center, University of Abuja Teaching Hospital (UATH), Gwagwalada. Extracted data includes; demographic data, clinical symptoms, underlying comorbidities, and clinical outcomes. The outcome of interest was either discharged or died. Data was analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0.

Results: the median age was 45 years (range 2-84 years). Majority of the patients were males (66.5%). The most affected age group was 50-59 years (21%). Children and adolescents were least affected; less than 10 years constituted 2.5% and 10-19 years constituted 4.5%. The commonest symptoms at presentation were fever (94%) and cough (92%). Ninety-four patients (47%) had underlying comorbidities; the commonest was hypertension (36%). Based on disease severity; 126 (63%) had mild disease, 22 (11%) had moderate disease and 52 (26%) had severe disease. The commonest complication was Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS) seen in 29 (14.5%) patients. Out of the 200 cases managed, 189 (94.5%) were discharged in a stable condition while 11 (5.5%) died. Patients with under lying comorbidities had 9.6% death rate while those without comorbidities had 1.9% death rate.

Conclusion: among Nigerian patients', COVID-19 affects males more than females while children and adolescents were least affected. The study highlighted the clinical features of COVID-19 patients. The overall mortality rate is low among Nigerian patients compared to patients in the USA and Europe. This study shows that advanced age, presence of underlying comorbidities and disease severity is associated with the risk of dying from COVID-19.

Keywords: COVID-19 patients; Nigeria; clinical features; comorbidities; treatment outcome.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • COVID-19* / therapy
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Coronavirus*
  • Female
  • Hospitalization
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Nigeria / epidemiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult