Background: Guidance and data on ventricular assist device (VAD) support for children with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, particularly within the first 2 years after chemotherapy, are limited.
Methods: We performed a single-center retrospective case series, reviewing medical records of children <18 years of age with chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy and advanced heart failure (HF) who received durable VAD support.
Results: Six patients met inclusion criteria-5 HeartWare™ HVAD, 1 Berlin Heart EXCOR® . Median age at cancer diagnosis was 6 years (IQR 4.5-10 years). Median dose of anthracycline received was 540 mg/m2 (IQR 450-630 mg/m2 ). All patients developed HF within 1 year after initiation of cancer treatment (median 8 months, IQR 6-11.5 months) and were initiated on durable VAD support at a median of 8 months after completion of cancer treatment (IQR 3.3-43.5 months). Four patients had significant right ventricular dysfunction needing oral pulmonary vasodilator therapy, one patient had a major bleeding complication, and two patients had thromboembolic strokes while on VAD support. Median duration of VAD support was 7.5 months (IQR 3-11.3 months). Two patients underwent VAD explant due to recovery of LV function, one died due to cancer progression, and three underwent heart transplantation.
Conclusions: Durable VAD support should be considered as a therapeutic option for children who have advanced HF due to chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy, even within 2 years of completing cancer treatment. A multi-disciplinary approach is essential for appropriate patient selection prior to implant and to ensure comprehensive care throughout the duration of VAD support.
Keywords: HF; VAD; chemotherapy-induced cardiomyopathy.
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