Defect Passivation through (α-Methylguanido)acetic Acid in Perovskite Solar Cell for High Operational Stability

ACS Appl Mater Interfaces. 2022 May 11;14(18):20848-20855. doi: 10.1021/acsami.2c00231. Epub 2022 Apr 27.

Abstract

Defect passivation has become essential in improving efficiency and stability in perovskite solar cells. Here, we report the use of (α-methylguanido)acetic acid, also known as creatine, as a passivation molecule. It is employed both as an additive and as a surface passivation layer of perovskite thin films, given its multiple functional groups, which could address different defect sites, and its size, which could inherently affect the material structure. We prove that the surface passivation is more efficiently working by removing vulnerable defects on the surface. Hole and electron defect densities were reduced, leading to the highest power conversion efficiency of 22.6%. In addition, it can effectively protect the perovskite thin film and improve the operational stabilities in high thermal (85 °C) and humid conditions (50% relative humidity), suggesting a strong stability of the surface passivation layer.

Keywords: 2D perovskite; passivation methods; perovskite; solar cell; stability.