Clinical, radiological and molecular studies in 24 individuals with Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen dysplasia and Smith-McCort dysplasia from India

J Med Genet. 2023 Feb;60(2):204-211. doi: 10.1136/jmedgenet-2021-108098. Epub 2022 Apr 27.


Background: Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen dysplasia (DMC) and Smith-McCort dysplasia (SMC types 1 and 2) are rare spondyloepimetaphyseal dysplasias with identical radiological findings. The presence of intellectual disability in DMC and normal intellect in SMC differentiates the two. DMC and SMC1 are allelic and caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous variants in DYM. SMC2 is caused by variations in RAB33B. Both DYM and RAB33B are important in intravesicular transport and function in the Golgi apparatus.

Methods: Detailed clinical phenotyping and skeletal radiography followed by molecular testing were performed in all affected individuals. Next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing were used to confirm DYM and RAB33B variants. Sanger sequencing of familial variants was done in all parents.

Results: 24 affected individuals from seven centres are described. 18 had DMC and 6 had SMC2. Parental consanguinity was present in 15 of 19 (79%). Height <3 SD and gait abnormalities were seen in 20 and 14 individuals, respectively. The characteristic radiological findings of lacy iliac crests and double-humped vertebral bodies were seen in 96% and 88% of the affected. Radiological findings became attenuated with age. 23 individuals harboured biallelic variants in either DYM or RAB33B. Fourteen different variants were identified, out of which 10 were novel. The most frequently occurring variants in this group were c.719 C>A (3), c.1488_1489del (2), c.1484dup (2) and c.1563+2T>C (2) in DYM and c.400C>T (2) and c.186del (2) in RAB33B. The majority of these have not been reported previously.

Conclusion: This large cohort from India contributes to the increasing knowledge of clinical and molecular findings in these rare 'Golgipathies'.

Keywords: Genetics, Medical; Sequence Analysis, DNA.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Dwarfism* / diagnostic imaging
  • Dwarfism* / genetics
  • Humans
  • Intellectual Disability* / diagnostic imaging
  • Intellectual Disability* / genetics
  • Mutation
  • Osteochondrodysplasias* / diagnostic imaging
  • Osteochondrodysplasias* / genetics

Supplementary concepts

  • Smith-McCort Dysplasia
  • Dyggve-Melchior-Clausen syndrome