The clinical importance of radiotherapy in the treatment of cancer patients justifies the development and use of research tools at the fundamental, pre-clinical, and ultimately clinical levels, to investigate their toxicities and synergies with systemic agents on relevant biological samples. Although microfluidics has prompted a paradigm shift in drug discovery in the past two decades, it appears to have yet to translate to radiotherapy research. However, the materials, dimensions, design versatility and multiplexing capabilities of microfluidic devices make them well-suited to a variety of studies involving radiation physics, radiobiology and radiotherapy. This review will present the state-of-the-art applications of microfluidics in these fields and specifically highlight the perspectives offered by radiotherapy on-a-chip in the field of translational radiobiology and precision medicine. This body of knowledge can serve both the microfluidics and radiotherapy communities by identifying potential collaboration avenues to improve patient care.