Persistent Inflammation and Non-AIDS Comorbidities During ART: Coming of the Age of Monocytes

Front Immunol. 2022 Apr 11:13:820480. doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2022.820480. eCollection 2022.


Monocytes are innate immune cells that serve as the first line of defense against pathogens by engulfing and destroying pathogens or by processing and presenting antigens to initiate adaptive immunity and stimulate immunological responses. Monocytes are classified into three types: classical, intermediate, and non-classical monocytes, each of which plays a particular function in response to pathogens. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection disrupts the balance of monocyte subsets, and the quantity and function of monocytes will not fully recover even with long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART). Monocytes are vital for the establishment and maintenance of HIV-1 latent viral reservoirs and are closely related to immune dysfunction even after ART. Therefore, the present review focuses on the phenotypic function of monocytes and their functions in HIV-1 infection to elucidate their roles in HIV patients.

Keywords: ART; HIV-1; inflammation; monocytes; non-AIDS comorbidities.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Infections* / epidemiology
  • HIV-1*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Monocytes