Surgical Approach in Intraocular Tumors

Turk J Ophthalmol. 2022 Apr 28;52(2):125-138. doi: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2021.24376.

Abstract

Surgery in intraocular tumors is done for excision/biopsy and the management of complications secondary to the treatment of these tumors. Excision/biopsy of intraocular tumors can be done via fine-needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB), transretinal biopsy (TRB), partial lamellar sclerouvectomy (PLSU), and endoresection. FNAB, TRB, and PLSU can be used in tumors that cannot be diagnosed by clinical examination and other ancillary testing methods. PLSU is employed in tumors involving the iridociliary region and choroid anterior to the equator. Excisional PLSU is performed for iridociliary and ciliary body tumors with less than 3 clock hours of iris and ciliary body involvement and choroidal tumors with a base diameter less than 15 mm. However, for biopsy, PLSU can be employed with any size tumor. Endoresection is a procedure whereby the intraocular tumor is excised using vitrectomy techniques. The rationale for performing endoresection is based on the fact that irradiated uveal melanomas may cause complications such as exudation, neovascular glaucoma, and intraocular pigment and tumor dissemination (toxic tumor syndrome), and removing the dead tumor tissue may contribute to better visual outcome. Endoresection is recommended 1-2 weeks after external radiotherapy. Pars plana vitrectomy is also used in the management of complications including vitreous hemorrhage, retinal detachment, and epiretinal membrane that can occur after treatment of posterior segment tumors using radiotherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy. It is important to make sure the intraocular tumor has been eradicated before embarking on such treatment.

Keywords: Intraocular tumors; choroidal tumor; ciliary body tumor; endoresection; fine needle aspiration biopsy; pars plana vitrectomy; partial lamellar sclerouvectomy; radiotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Choroid Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Ciliary Body
  • Humans
  • Melanoma*
  • Uveal Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Uveal Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Vitrectomy / methods