The clinical, molecular, and therapeutic features of patients with IL10/IL10R deficiency: a systematic review

Clin Exp Immunol. 2022 Apr 27;uxac040. doi: 10.1093/cei/uxac040. Online ahead of print.

Abstract

Interleukin10 (IL10) and IL10 receptor (IL10R) deficiencies are monogenic inborn errors of immunity (IEI) causing early-onset inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). In this report, we systematically reviewed articles that included related keywords using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. The articles were screened for eligibility criteria before data extraction. We assessed 286 patients (44.5% female) with IL10 and/or IL10R deficiencies who were predominantly from China (40.7%), Italy (13.9%), and South Korea (8.5%). The median age of onset was 1.0 (0.3-4.0) months with a median age of genetic diagnosis at 16.0 (7.4-81.0) months. Consanguinity was reported in all evaluable patients with IL10 deficiency and in 38.2% of patients with IL10R deficiency (22.9% of patients with IL10RA, and 79.4% of patients with IL10RB deficiency). The most prevalent mutations in IL10RA were c.301C>T (p.R101W) and c.537G>A (p.T179T), those in IL10RB were c.139A>G (p.K47E) and c.611G>A (p.W204X). Auto-inflammation and enteropathy were present in all cases. The first presentation of both groups was protracted diarrhea (45.7%), bloody diarrhea (17.8%), and colitis (15.5%). Patients with IL10R deficiency had a high frequency of dermatologic manifestations (50.5%) and failure to thrive (60.5%), while IL10-deficient patients lacked those complications. In the majority of patients, the basic immunologic parameters were in normal ranges. Of the entire publications, 30.7% underwent hemopoietic stem cell transplantation, 57.5% surgery, and 86.6% immunosuppressive treatment. The ten-year survival rate was higher in patients with IL10 deficiency than in patients with IL10R deficiency. In conclusion, IL10/IL10R deficiency predominantly presents with treatment-resistant, early-onset IBD within the first months of life. We detected no clear correlation between the phenotype of patients carrying the same variant. The high prevalence of distinct clinical manifestations reported in IL10RA- and IL10RB-deficient patients might be attributable to the interactions between the target tissue and cytokines other than IL10 capable of binding to IL10RB. These results gain translational significance by contributing to earlier diagnosis, adequate therapy, and avoiding delay in the diagnosis and unfavorable outcome.

Keywords: IL10 deficiency; IL10 receptor deficiency; Inborn errors of immunity; Primary immunodeficiency; Very early-onset IBD.