Beam commissioning of the first clinical biology-guided radiotherapy system

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2022 Jun;23(6):e13607. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13607. Epub 2022 Apr 28.


This study reports the beam commissioning results for the first clinical RefleXion Linac.

Methods: The X1 produces a 6 MV photon beam and the maximum clinical field size is 40 × 2 cm2 at source-to-axis distance of 85 cm. Treatment fields are collimated by a binary multileaf collimator (MLC) system with 64 leaves with width of 0.625 cm and y-jaw pairs to provide either a 1 or 2 cm opening. The mechanical alignment of the radiation source, the y-jaw, and MLC were checked with film and ion chambers. The beam parameters were characterized using a diode detector in a compact water tank. In-air lateral profiles and in-water percentage depth dose (PDD) were measured for beam modeling of the treatment planning system (TPS). The lateral profiles, PDDs, and output factors were acquired for field sizes from 1.25 × 1 to 40 × 2 cm2 field to verify the beam modeling. The rotational output variation and synchronicity were tested to check the gantry angle, couch motion, and gantry rotation.

Results: The source misalignments were 0.049 mm in y-direction, 0.66% out-of-focus in x-direction. The divergence of the beam axis was 0.36 mm with a y-jaw twist of 0.03°. Clinical off-axis treatment fields shared a common center in y-direction were within 0.03 mm. The MLC misalignment and twist were 0.57 mm and 0.15°. For all measured fields ranging from the size from 1.25 × 1 to 40 × 2 cm2 , the mean difference between measured and TPS modeled PDD at 10 cm depth was -0.3%. The mean transverse profile difference in the field core was -0.3% ± 1.1%. The full-width half maximum (FWHM) modeling was within 0.5 mm. The measured output factors agreed with TPS within 0.8%.

Conclusions: This study summarizes our specific experience commissioning the first novel RefleXion linac, which may assist future users of this technology when implementing it into their own clinics.

Keywords: BGRT; RefleXion; commissioning.

MeSH terms

  • Biology
  • Humans
  • Particle Accelerators*
  • Radiometry* / methods
  • Radiotherapy Dosage
  • Radiotherapy Planning, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Water


  • Water