Migraine and Diet: Updates in Understanding

Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2022 Jun;22(6):327-334. doi: 10.1007/s11910-022-01195-6. Epub 2022 Apr 28.

Abstract

Purpose of review: We explore recent developments in the prevention and treatment of migraine through dietary interventions.

Recent findings: Healthier diets (defined in multiple ways), meal regularity, and weight loss are associated with decreased headache burden. Specific diets including the ketogenic diet, the low-glycemic index diet, and the DASH diet are supported by modest evidence for the prevention of migraine. Neither a gluten-free diet, in patients without celiac disease, nor elimination diets have sufficient evidence for their routine consideration. Diet remains a crucial, but underexplored, component of comprehensive migraine management. Multiple interventions exist for providers and patients to consider integrating into their treatment plan. Larger studies are needed to support stronger recommendations for utilization of specific dietary interventions for the prevention and treatment of migraine.

Keywords: Diet; Ketogenic diet; Low-glycemic index diet; Migraine; Prevention; Weight management.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diet
  • Diet, Ketogenic*
  • Headache
  • Humans
  • Migraine Disorders*