A classification of MRI brain tumor based on two stage feature level ensemble of deep CNN models

Comput Biol Med. 2022 Jul;146:105539. doi: 10.1016/j.compbiomed.2022.105539. Epub 2022 Apr 22.

Abstract

The brain tumor is one of the deadliest cancerous diseases and its severity has turned it to the leading cause of cancer related mortality. The treatment procedure of the brain tumor depends on the type, location and size of the tumor. Relying solely on human inspection for precise categorization can lead to inevitably dangerous situation. This manual diagnosis process can be improved and accelerated through an automated Computer Aided Diagnosis (CADx) system. In this article, a novel approach using two-stage feature ensemble of deep Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) is proposed for precise and automatic classification of brain tumors. Three unique Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) datasets and a dataset merging all the unique datasets are considered. The datasets contain three types of brain tumor (meningioma, glioma, pituitary) and normal brain images. From five pre-trained models and a proposed CNN model, the best models are chosen and concatenated in two stages for feature extraction. The best classifier is also chosen among five different classifiers based on accuracy. From the extracted features, most substantial features are selected using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and fed into the classifier. The robustness of the proposed two stage ensemble model is analyzed using several performance metrics and three different experiments. Through the prominent performance, the proposed model is able to outperform other existing models attaining an average accuracy of 99.13% by optimization of the developed algorithms. Here, the individual accuracy for Dataset 1, Dataset 2, Dataset 3, and Merged Dataset is 99.67%, 98.16%, 99.76%, and 98.96% respectively. Finally a User Interface (UI) is created using the proposed model for real time validation.

Keywords: Brain tumor classification; Convolutional neural network; Magnetic resonance imaging; Principal component analysis; Two stage ensemble.

MeSH terms

  • Algorithms
  • Brain Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging
  • Glioma* / diagnostic imaging
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Neural Networks, Computer