Cardiovascular Implications of the 2021 KDIGO Blood Pressure Guideline for Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease

J Am Coll Cardiol. 2022 May 3;79(17):1675-1686. doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2022.02.040.


Background: The 2021 Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO) guideline recommends a systolic blood pressure (BP) target of <120 mm Hg for nondialysis chronic kidney disease (CKD).

Objectives: We sought to examine the potential implications of the 2021 KDIGO BP target, compared with the 2012 KDIGO and 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) BP targets, as related to cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcomes.

Methods: From the cross-sectional Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) and longitudinal National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) data, adults with nondialysis CKD were identified and categorized into 4 groups based on concordance/discordance between guidelines: 1) above both targets; 2) above 2021 KDIGO only; 3) above 2012 KDIGO or 2017 ACC/AHA only; and 4) controlled within both targets. We determined the nationally representative proportion and CVD risk of each group.

Results: In KNHANES (n = 1,939), 50.2% had BP above both 2021 and 2012 KDIGO targets, 15.9% above the 2021 KDIGO target only, 3.5% above the 2012 KDIGO target only, and 30.4% controlled within both targets. In NHIS (n = 412,167; median follow-up: 10.0 years), multivariable-adjusted HRs for CVD events were 1.52 (95% CI: 1.47-1.58) among participants with BP above both targets, 1.28 (95% CI: 1.24-1.32) among those with BP above 2021 KDIGO only, and 1.07 (95% CI: 0.61-1.89) among those with BP above 2012 KDIGO only, compared to those with BP controlled within both targets. Results were similar for comparison between 2021 KDIGO and 2017 ACC/AHA BP targets.

Conclusions: New candidates for BP-lowering treatment per the 2021 KDIGO guideline account for a substantial proportion of the total CKD population and bear significantly high CVD risk.

Keywords: blood pressure target; cardiovascular outcome; chronic kidney disease; guideline; nondialysis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Hypertension* / therapy
  • Male
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / therapy
  • United States / epidemiology