Avelumab Dose Selection for Clinical Studies in Pediatric Patients with Solid Tumors

Clin Pharmacokinet. 2022 Jul;61(7):985-995. doi: 10.1007/s40262-022-01111-8. Epub 2022 Apr 29.


Background and objective: A phase I/II trial evaluated the safety, antitumor activity, and pharmacokinetics of avelumab (anti-PD-L1 antibody) in pediatric patients with refractory/relapsed solid tumors (NCT03451825). This study aimed to inform avelumab dose selection in pediatric populations using population pharmacokinetic modeling and simulations.

Methods: Patients aged < 18 years with refractory/relapsed solid tumors enrolled in phase I received avelumab 10 or 20 mg/kg intravenously every 2 weeks. A pediatric population pharmacokinetic model was developed via the frequentist prior approach.

Results: Pharmacokinetic parameters from 21 patients who received avelumab 10 mg/kg (n = 6) or 20 mg/kg (n = 15) were analyzed. Patients had a wide range of weights and ages (medians, 37.3 kg and 12 years). Exposures with 10-mg/kg dosing were lower vs adult dosing, particularly in patients weighing < 40 kg, whereas 20-mg/kg dosing achieved or exceeded adult exposures, irrespective of body weight. A two-compartment linear model with time-varying clearance using body weight as a covariate, with the frequentist prior approach, best described pediatric data. In this model, optimal overlap in exposure with adult data was achieved with 800 mg every 2 weeks for patients aged ≥ 12 years and weighing ≥ 40 kg, and 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks for patients aged < 12 years or weighing < 40 kg.

Conclusions: Based on exposure matching, the recommended doses for further avelumab studies, including combination studies, are 15 mg/kg every 2 weeks for pediatric patients aged < 12 years or weighing < 40 kg and the adult flat dose of 800 mg every 2 weeks for pediatric patients aged ≥ 12 years and weighing ≥ 40 kg.

Clinical trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT03451825.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal* / pharmacokinetics
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • Body Weight
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms* / drug therapy


  • Antibodies, Monoclonal
  • Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized
  • avelumab

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT03451825