Background: Evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of anticoagulant thromboprophylaxis among pediatric patients hospitalized for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is limited. We sought to evaluate safety, dose-finding, and preliminary efficacy of twice-daily enoxaparin as primary thromboprophylaxis among children hospitalized for symptomatic COVID-19, including primary respiratory infection and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MISC).
Methods: We performed a phase 2, multicenter, prospective, open-label, single-arm clinical trial of twice-daily enoxaparin (initial dose: 0.5mg/kg per dose; max: 60mg; target anti-Xa activity: 0.20-0.49IU/mL) as primary thromboprophylaxis for children <18 years of age hospitalized for symptomatic COVID-19. Study endpoints included: cumulative incidence of International Society of Thrombosis and Haemostasis-defined clinically relevant bleeding; enoxaparin dose-requirements; and cumulative incidence of venous thromboembolism within 30-days of hospital discharge. Descriptive statistics summarized endpoint estimates that were further evaluated by participant age (±12 years) and clinical presentation.
Results: Forty children were enrolled and 38 met analyses criteria. None experienced clinically relevant bleeding. Median (interquartile range) dose to achieve target anti-Xa levels was 0.5 mg/kg (0.48-0.54). Dose-requirement did not differ by age (0.5 [0.46-0.52] mg/kg for age ≥12 years versus 0.52 [0.49-0.55] mg/kg for age <12 years, P = .51) but was greater for participants with MISC (0.52 [0.5-0.61] mg/kg) as compared with primary COVID-19 (0.48 [0.39-0.51] mg/kg, P = .010). Two children (5.3%) developed central-venous catheter-related venous thromboembolism. No serious adverse events were related to trial intervention.
Conclusions: Among children hospitalized for COVID-19, thromboprophylaxis with twice-daily enoxaparin appears safe and warrants further investigation to assess efficacy.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04354155.
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