Effects of Moderate to High Static Magnetic Fields on Reproduction

Bioelectromagnetics. 2022 May;43(4):278-291. doi: 10.1002/bem.22404. Epub 2022 Apr 29.


With the wide application of magnetic resonance imaging in hospitals and permanent magnets in household items, people have increased exposure to various types of static magnetic fields (SMFs) with moderate and high intensities, which has caused a considerable amount of public concern. Studies have shown that some aspects of gametogenesis and early embryonic development can be significantly affected by SMFs, while others have shown no effects. This review summarizes the experimental results of moderate to high-intensity SMFs (1 mT-16.7 T) on the reproductive development of different model animals, and we find that the effects of SMFs are variable depending on experimental conditions. In general, the effects of inhomogeneous SMFs seem to be more significant compared to that of homogeneous SMFs, which is likely due to magnetic forces generated by the magnetic field gradient. Moreover, some electromagnetic fields may have induced bioeffects because of nonnegligible gradient and heat effect, which are much reduced in superconducting magnets. We hope this review can provide a starting point for more in-depth analysis of various SMFs on reproduction, which is indispensable for evaluating the safety and potential applications of SMFs on living organisms in the future. © 2022 Bioelectromagnetics Society.

Keywords: embryonic development; homogeneous and gradient field; magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); reproduction; static magnetic field (SMF).

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Electromagnetic Fields*
  • Humans
  • Magnetic Fields*
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging
  • Magnets
  • Reproduction