To determine whether the enhanced insulin-sensitivity of glucose metabolism in muscle after acute exercise also extends to protein metabolism, untrained and exercise-trained rats were subjected to an acute bout of exercise, and the responses of protein synthesis and degradation to insulin were measured in epitrochlearis muscles in vitro. Acute exercise of both untrained and trained rats decreased protein synthesis in muscle in the absence or presence of insulin, but protein degradation was not altered. Exercise training alone had no effect on protein synthesis or degradation in muscle in the absence or presence of insulin. Acute exercise or training alone enhanced the sensitivities of both protein synthesis and degradation to insulin, but the enhanced insulin-sensitivities from training alone were not additive to those after acute exercise. These results indicate that: a decrease in protein synthesis is the primary change in muscle protein turnover after acute exercise and is not altered by prior exercise training, and the enhanced insulin-sensitivities of metabolism of both glucose and protein after either acute exercise or training suggest post-binding receptor events.