Echocardiographic Indices in Pediatric Chronic Kidney Disease

Iran J Kidney Dis. 2022 Mar;16(2):88-95.

Abstract

Introduction: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) may accompany chronic kidney disease (CKD), resulting in additional complications and increased death rate. This study was performed to evaluate cardiac structure and function and several risk factors in hospitalized CKD children.

Methods: Seventy-four children with CKD were enrolled in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Two-dimensional and M-mode ultrasonography, Doppler flow velocity and Tissue Doppler Imaging (TDI) were used to evaluate cardiac chamber size, left ventricular mass (LVM) and echocardiographic indices of ventricular function.

Results: Advanced stages of CKD showed statistically insignificant increased LVM and LVM indexed to height2.7 (LVMI), and mildly reduced diastolic function. Hypertensive patients had an insignificant increase in the incidence of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) defined as LVMI greater than 95th percentile for age and sex and LVH2 as LVMI2 more than 95 gr/m2 for girls and more than 115gr/ m2 for boys older than 8 years. Patients with LVH had lower left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and abnormal right ventricular (RV) function based on the tricuspid valve systolic velocity (TV S') survey. LVH2 cases, however, revealed decreased LV systolic function according to ejection fraction (EF) and abnormal mitral valve systolic velocity (MV S').

Conclusion: LVH related to hypertension and mild systolic and diastolic dysfunction were more prevalent in advanced CKD cases, however TDI showed no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of MV S' and TV S'. We recommend strict blood pressure control and prevention of renal function deterioration as effective tools for cardiac protection in CKD children. DOI: 10.52547/ijkd.6643.

MeSH terms

  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Echocardiography / adverse effects
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension* / complications
  • Hypertension* / epidemiology
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / diagnostic imaging
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / epidemiology
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology
  • Male
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic* / epidemiology
  • Stroke Volume / physiology
  • Ventricular Function, Left